3D printed Polish Enigma November 18th update.

November 18th, 2017

A new film I have made about the plug board is available here now:

The plug board was a simple thing to model and print although I did do a small trick with printing in two different filaments to make the letters on the plug board stand out a little more. I explain that in the film. I would have liked it to be a little more contrasty on the finished piece but white on silver will only give so much.

IMG_0989 IMG_0983 IMG_0982

I also printed a holder for the two spare rotors. On the Polish machine this fits where the battery would normally go on the German Enigmas.

IMG_0987 IMG_0988

I need to modify my temporary wooden base board so I can then test mount the plug board. I need to make 10 little aluminium standoffs to support it. I used a lot as the board itself needs to take the force of patch cables being plugged in and out. I will align all the socket nuts on the final one, mainly because I am a bit OCD like that!

I am unsure of the exact height that the panel needs to be. On all the pictures of the Polish machine I have it’s hard to actually tell so I am guessing somewhat here! Once that is done I can design and print the top panel which is the final 3D printed part to finish the machine I think. I imagine it is low enough down so that when in the box with the lid closed all the patch panels can fit in.

Below is the section of G-Code I edited to pause the printer. The pause command is a Repetier function as described here: https://www.repetier.com/documentation/repetier-host/gcode-editor/


The lines I added are highlighted. The G28 returns the printer to the home position. The @pause simply does what it says, paused the printing. The heaters and extruder stay on so you can manually extrude (and retract) filament. You have to be very careful where you put the command in. Note that it is directly before the next move commands. This is important because after you continue the print the printer needs to return to the correct position again.

This is the link to the lubricator I use on my printer: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:492067

One thing people keep asking me (sorry if you asked and I haven’t replied directly) is will I make the files available when I am done. It is a good question and I haven’t decided yet. For one thing someone can’t just take the files and make their own machine easily. There are metal parts that need to be machined, various parts I have used that someone else might not be able to find (bulb holders, switches, pins, sockets, etc) so I would need to write up instructions on how to make the metal parts and also what other components I used so people have some chance of finding the right things. Writing detailed instructions be a lot of work. Given that not many people are likely to actually try making one I could just release the files I have as is/where is too.

The other thing is I have invested hours of work and a fair bit of cash into parts and filament so maybe those who are serious enough to really want to try to make one would be happy to send me a few bucks to help cover the costs (how, I don’t actually know). If I wanted to go even further than that it might even be worth my while to have all the parts professionally printed and sell them? Or maybe I could write up the instructions and make it into some kind of book (with files available as a download).  I am not looking to make huge amounts of money from this, it’s a hobby after all. But making enough to pay for parts and filament and provide funds for new projects such as upgrading or making a new printer might be nice. If I had thought about it early maybe I should have set up a Patreon type thing?

Like I say I really don’t know yet. I do know I won’t do anything until the machine is finished and hopefully working!

If anyone has ideas let me know.

3D printed Polish Enigma November 12th update.

November 12th, 2017

I made another small film.

Am slowly getting towards the end. The lamp board is done. I printed a sloping piece that bolts to the front of the lapboard. This is necessary to lift the lamp board up above the top of the keyboard.  On the back of the lamp board are two small tabs which the top cover will sit down on when it is designed and made. I also finally have proper return springs on the compensator bar as well by making small footings that the lamp board sits on. These footings lift up the lamp board a little to provide the step mentioned above as well as also providing the upper spring mounting point.

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I made all the key top and now have the aluminium rod I need to make the key shafts.

IMG_0974 IMG_0971_1

I also tweaked the diameter of the little circlip like parts. The diameter of these was quite close to the diameter of the hole they fit into under the top of the keyboard. This mean that sometimes they would rub on the edge of the hole and make the motion of the key press a little sticky just as the key started to move. Reducing the diameter fixed this.

IMG_0975_1 IMG_0976_1

I also ordered connectors and wire. The connectors are DA-26s from RS. I got cheap ones since they won’t be continually connected and disconnected. They are ASSMANN brand!


My plan is to wire the different parts of the machine separately to make wiring, testing and assembly easier. There will be four main parts, the keyboard, the lamp board, the plug board and the entry wheel. These connectors will join each part. I also plan to make a small test box with LEDs on it. I will use that as a continuity tester to check the wiring of each part. I am going to use 30 AWG silicone covered wire for all the looms. Very thin but as only one lamp at a time is lit the current is very low.

I am currently printing a bracket that supports the two spare rotors as used in the Polish double. And I still need to design and print the plugboard as well as the top cover.

3D printed Enigma lamp board.

October 29th, 2017

Just a quick update. I have made the lamp board for the 3D printed Enigma machine and made a film here:

3D printed Enigma October update.

October 2nd, 2017

Just a quick update. I made another blurry film.

I have made progress on the keyboard and have that mechanism all worked out now. I am not sure I am 100% happy with it so it might get redesigned and reprinted! The mechanism of it is fine. Just minor changes to make it easier to assemble. In fact after making that film I already changed the little springs to something different.

I also created and printed onto clear plastic sheet the fonts for the keys and the lamp board.

I have also decided my machine will be based on the Polish Enigma Double rather than the German Enigma just because German Enigmas have been done before (in fact you can buy incredibly accurate replicas here already: http://enigmamuseum.com/replica/) and I don’t believe the Poles get enough recognition for what they achieved.

I’ve posted links to it before and there is a ton of information online about it if you search.

3D printed Enigma keyboard.

August 6th, 2017

First another film. Sorry for the blurriness again, really need a better camera! Canon Ixus 175 is rubbish! Don’t buy one!

I have been busy working on the keyboard mechanism of my machine. This will vary a lot in actual mechanical details from an original machine as I am using totally different switches. The original Enigma used metal contacts actuated by pins though the shafts of the keys. Two rows of keys (of the three on the keyboard) use compression springs on the key shafts but the third, top row, actually uses small tension springs. My mechanism is considerably different.

I am using modern micro switches in mine as they are easy to obtain and come in standard sizes. To wire the Enigma up correctly you need what is called a double throw switch. This switch has three contacts, a common and then two outputs, one active in each switch position. In the real Enigma machine the key switches swap the current from being an input to an output. The switch is wired so the common goes to the entry wheel (via the plug board). The NC (normally closed – key up) contact goes to the lamp matching the letter of the key and the NO (normally open – key down) goes to the battery positive. When a key is pressed the switch in it connects that letter to the battery. The current then flows through the plug board, into the scrambler (entry wheel, three rotors and reflector) then back out of the scrambler to a different key (NEVER the same key – one of Enigmas weaknesses). That key, being up, directs the current to its correct letter lamp.

I started by modelling up small parts of the mechanism. I am using the same external dimensions as the real machine for the keyboard itself and the keys. I made a base plate with little pockets that the micro switches press fit into. I only printed a part of the whole plate for these tests.


I then set about making some kind of cam to actuate the switch as the key is pressed. For the shaft of the keys I am using 1/4 inch aluminium rod. I can 3D print shafts but they aren’t really smooth or strong enough so don’t provide a very nice action. I know some dozy twat will come along and say “the machine isn’t fully 3D printed then” but having one 100% 3D printed is somewhat impossible so I am not claiming it’s fully 3D printed. I could 3D print a static model I guess but a working one will always need some non plastic parts of course.

I started working out how to do a cam and the basic idea is very simple. A press fit collar on the key shaft that has an appropriate profile to actuate the switch as the key is pressed. I started playing about with ideas. Luckily small parts like this are quick to print so you can try many ideas (rapid prototyping).


A simple round collar with a flat on the side worked but the issue then was that the key shaft is free to rotate. You could use square shafts in square holes to solve that issue but that’s a lot harder to engineer. To stop the rotation happening I ended up using the body of the switch itself. I extended the cam collar so it had little flat extensions to it. These are sized to be just wider than the width of the switch itself and they slide up and down the sides of the switch freely but prevent the key shaft from rotating.

IMG_0880_1 IMG_0876_1

The other thing I did was make the hole in the base of the cam wider than the shaft. This is so there is room for a spring that fits around the shaft and up inside the cam. This spring will cause the key to pop back up after it is pressed. I have ordered some appropriate springs from China (thank you Aliexpress!) so am waiting for them to arrive now.

To test the whole mechanism I printed a small model of one key. You can see it below with the key fully down then fully up.

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I think on my machine the keys won’t move up and down as much as on a real machine. You only need around 10 mm maximum movement to actuate the mechanism to step the rotors. My key mech gives me 11mm of movement currently. I can add up to another 5mm to that if needed. The other tricky thing is each of the three rows of keys moves a slightly different amount. I should be able to compensate for this by changing the profile of my cams. This will take some trial and error but should be workable. Of course the key needs to move the rotors THEN actuate the switch. I do know from a film that James did for me that the keys on a real machine go all the way down to the body. On mine they will probably stop a little short.

The whole mechanism holding the keys consists of three parts. The bottom part holds the switches. Then there is an upper part that has supports to press down on the switches to hold them in place. That sits directly under the actual keyboard, which I have printed to the same dimensions and profile as the original so the keyboard layout will be identical although my mounting holes are in different places. The whole lot is held together with the same aluminium rod as the key shafts. I drilled and tapped these on the lathe to make spacers.


There are spacers under the bottom layer that attach the keyboard to the base and hold it the correct height above the see-saw. These I tapped both ends then I added threaded rods (cut down machine screws) into one end. These threads are Loctited in place. These threads pass through the switch plate then the top spacers are screwed onto these sandwiching the switch plate between the spacers. The top plate sliders over the spacers. Then the keyboard itself sits on top of this plate and on top of the spacers. Screws though the keyboard hold everything in place. The pictures below should help explain.

IMG_0881_1 IMG_0882_1 IMG_0884_1

When I make the base I will add in stops that go under the see-saw part to provide physical limits on that. I will also add in some extra supports for the middle section of the keyboard to stop that sagging. The original machines did have an extra middle support there.

The key tops need some work too. I mentioned in the film using my little laser cutter to make plastic windows for the key tops. This will definitely work and I might do that but I have ordered some 12mm glass microscope cover slips and I am hoping those will work so I can have real glass in the keys. I need to do some work with the actual key top printing. These are printed in two parts and I have the model complete but I need to play with my printer settings to get them to print very cleanly. This is so they will press fit together nicely. I also need to create the font for the key tops in the same was as I did the font for the letter on the rings of the rotors. Then I need another font for the lamp board. They are all different and it really annoys me! I thought the Germans were more ordered than that.

I have discovered there is a book called “Inside Enigma” by Professor Tom Perera which you can buy from the Radio Society of Great Britain online shop that apparently has pictures of the insides of the machines. This probably would have been a great help before I started. I have ordered one but it hasn’t arrived yet. Prof. Perera is also involved with the enigmamuseum.com site where you can buy real machines (if you have around a quarter million $US to spend)!

I know there were many different models of Enigma, I am not sure exactly how many, so I am really looking forward to this book arriving.

Making the keyboard made me realise how much wiring there is going to be in this bloody thing. It’s actually going to be quite tricky wiring and assembling everything. I still need to make all the little brass contact pins for the rotors (156 of them) as well as the 26 key shafts, caps and the cams. I also need to model the lamp board but that should be fairly straight forward (I hope) and the second part of the base that the keyboard and lamp board attach to.

So still lots to do!

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